Curriculum Vitae | Google Scholar

Michelle’s research centers on human emotion, personality, and culture/language. Her current scope of research surrounds three crucial areas of human experience: the architecture of emotion, personality and language, and the experience of love in cultural contexts.

Her first line of research concerns the development of a 12-point circumplex model in the English and Chinese languages to describe emotion. More recently, I collaborated with researchers from 33 communities covering 25 languages to examine the architecture of emotion and its relationship with personality and psychological well-being. Using this network, I am initiating an experience-sampling project examining how people in Eastern (Western) culture can (cannot) feel happy and sad at the same time.

Her second line of research concerns the role of language in personality. Do bilinguals have two personalities? My initial findings show that when responding in Chinese (vs. English), the Chinese bilinguals saw themselves more neurotic, more agreeable, and more conscientious. What is primed by the test language? Why does the Chinese language make one perceive herself more neurotic? Both cultural values and reference group are possible candidates accounting for the language effect. She is currently designing studies to test their effects.

Her third line of research is a spin-off from her teaching on the topic of romantic love. It concerns how people of different cultures understand (romantic) love, while engendering diversified understanding by stretching the investigation beyond the Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic (WEIRD) societies to include communities on six different continents.


  • Yik, M., & Siu, N. Y.-F. (2024). Extraverts suffer from social distancing: A 30-day diary study. Personality and Individual Differences, 218, 112433. [pdf]
  • Yik, M., Sze, I. N. L., Kwok, F. H. C., & Lin S. (2023). Mapping Chinese personality: An assessment of the psychometric properties of the NEO-PI-3 in monolingual and bilingual studies. Assessment, 30(7), 2031–2049. [pdf]
  • Yik, M., & Chen, C. Z. (2023). Unravelling Chinese talk about emotion. Frontiers in Psychology, 14:1157863. [pdf]
  • Yik, M., et al. (2023). On the relationship between valence and arousal in samples across the globe. Emotion, 23, 332-344. [pdf]
  • Chen, X., & Yik, M. (2022). The emotional anatomy of the Wuhan lockdown: Sentiment analysis using Weibo data. JMIR Formative Research, 6(11): e37698. [pdf]
  • Yik, M., Russell, J. A., & Steiger, J. H. (2011). A 12-point circumplex structure of core affect. Emotion, 11, 705-731. [pdf]
  • Yik, M., (2010). How unique is Chinese emotion? In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology (2nd ed., pp. 205-220). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. [pdf]
  • Yik, M. (2009). Studying affect among the Chinese: The circular way. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 416-428. [pdf]

(1) The Oxford Handbook of Emotion and Culture Project

About the Project

The general goal of this handbook is to bring together contemporary and comparative research in the interplay between emotion and culture, from across the fields of psychology, neuroscience, biology, anthropology, philosophy, and linguistics, forming a comprehensive and exhaustive handbook. The intended readership of this handbook will be inclusive, ranging from researchers and scholars in the academic community, through coaches and trainers in the professional community, to students in the tertiary market.

Here are the 43 working titles:
01 – Philosophical approaches to emotion and cultural modulation
        Michael J. Deem (University of Pittsburgh, USA)

02 – The biocultural history of emotions
        Rob Boddice (Tampere University, Finland)

03 – Evolutionary and cultural aspects of emotion-based stories in fictional literature and films
        Keith Oatley, Si Jia Wu (University of Toronto, Canada)

04 – Language illustrates the cultural evolution of emotion
Joshua Conrad Jackson (University of Chicago, USA)
        Kristen Lindquist (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA)

05 – Emotion and the language-culture nexus
        Maia Ponsonnet (CNRS, Laboratoire Dynamique Du Langage/Université Lyon 2, France)

06 – Anthropological perspectives on culture and emotion
        Andrew Beatty (Brunel University London, UK)
07 – Culture in the psychological construction of emotion
        James Russell (Boston College, USA)

08 – Natural and cultural selection in emotion: Evolution isn’t what it used to be
        Alan J. Fridlund (University of California, Santa Barbara, USA)
Carlos Crivelli (De Montfort University, UK)
Blythe Williams (Duke University, USA)

09 – The interplay of evolution and culture in emotion: A basic emotion perspective
        Dacher Keltner, Laura Guzman (University of California, Berkeley, USA)

10 – Appraisal processes in emotion experiences: The role of culture
        Susanna Schmidt (University of Torino, Italy)
Phoebe Ellsworth (University of Michigan, USA)
Klaus Scherer (University of Geneva, Switzerland)
11 – LeDoux, J. E. (2020). Thoughtful feelings. Current Biology, 30(11), R619-R623.
        Joseph LeDoux (New York University, USA)

12 – Emotion in voice and language across cultures: A modern perspective
        Bjoern Schuller (Imperial College London, UK)

13 – The cultural construction of facial expression
        Maria Gendron (Yale University, USA)

14 – Emotions, expressions, and culture: An emic approach
        Carlos Crivelli (De Montfort University, UK)
Sergio Jarillo (The University of Melbourne, Australia)

15 – Nonverbal behavior, emotion, and culture
        José-Miguel Fernández-Dols (Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain)
        José Sánchez-García (Complutense University of Madrid, Spain)
16 – Emotional development in different cultural contexts
        Linda Camras (DePaul University, USA)
Eric Walle (University of California, Merced, USA)

17 – Emotion socialization in cultural context and the impact on children’s emotional development
        Yang Yang (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Qi Wang (Cornell University, USA)

18 – The development of children’s understanding of emotions: Variation and stability across cultures
        Liao Cheng, Paul L. Harris (Harvard University, USA)

19 – Culture, cognitive aging, and emotions
        Kesaan Kandasamy, Kathryn Bolton, Lixia Yang (Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada)

20 – Emotional processing across adulthood and culture
        Nicole Fung, Xianmin Gong, Helene Fung (Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
21 – Gendering emotion across cultures and throughout history
        Stephanie Shields (Penn State University, USA)
Shaocong Ma (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong)

22 – Culture and intergroup emotions
        Angela Maitner (American University of Sharjah, UAE)
Diane Mackie (University of California, Santa Barbara, USA)
Eliot Smith (Indiana University Bloomington, USA)

23 – Social functions of emotion: A cultural perspective
        Agneta Fischer (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Antony Manstead (Cardiff University, UK)

24 – Emotion mapped across the globe: Similarities and differences
        Michelle Yik (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong)

25 – Cultural differences in ideal affect and their consequences for daily life
        Jeanne Tsai (Stanford University, USA)

26 – Emotion and culture in human-nature relationship
        Kevin Tam (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong)
William Chan (Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong)

27 – Social and emotion norms: Features and cultural variations
        Cristina Salvador, Kirby Lam, Mercedes Muñoz (Duke University, USA)

28 – Making risky decisions: The role of emotion and culture
        Ellick Wong (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong)

29 – Culture and emotional memory: Existing evidence and future directions
        Elizabeth Kensinger, Marie Coura Diagne (Boston College, USA)

30 – Emotional intelligence through a cultural lens
        Marc Brackett, Shengjie Lin, Zorana Ivcevic, Zhenlan Wang (Yale University, USA)
31 – Advances in culture and subjective well-being
        June Kim (The College of New Jersey, USA)

32 – Culture, emotion regulation, and its implications for health
        William Tsai (New York University, USA)

33 – Culture and emotion regulation
        Maya Tamir (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel)

34 – The cultural shaping of emotional disorders: Somatization vs. psychologization
        Andrew Ryder (Concordia University, Canada)
35 – Passionate love around the world
        Cyrille Feybesse (University of Rennes 1, France)

36 – Considering the role of culture in anger
        Kinga Szymaniak, Thomas Denson, Eddie Harmon-Jones (University of New South Wales, Australia)

37 – Shame and culture
        W. Gerrod Parrott (Georgetown University, USA)

38 – Culture and well-being: Five empirical approaches
        Madison Montemayor-Dominguez, James Chinn, Stephen Cadieux, Sonja Lyubomirsky
(University of California, Riverside, USA)

39 – Amae, awe and saudade: Culturally specific emotions from distinct parts of the world
        Igor de Almeida (Kyoto University, Japan)
        Pamela Taylor (Akita International University, Japan)

40 – Respect, admiration, and fear: Cross-cultural consistencies and differences
        Kunalan Manokara (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Kerry Kawakami (York University, Canada)
Catherine Wan Ching (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Agneta Fischer (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)

41 – Face and emotion regulation in Chinese societies
        Frederick T. L. Leong (Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China)
SinHui Chong (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)

42 – The emergence of kama muta: Over 2,000,000 years, through centuries, in a human lifespan, in hours, and in milliseconds
        Alan Page Fiske (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
43 – An epilogue
        Batja Mesquita (KU Leuven, Belgium)

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(2) Happy Biking Project

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(3) Valence and Arousal Project

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